Liver cancer treatment and surgery India offers information on Liver Cancer Doctor India, Liver Cancer treatment and surgery Hospital India, Liver Cancer treatment and surgery Abroad, Liver Cancer causes, symptoms, Risk factors, treatment and surgery.
Primary liver cancer begins in the cells of the liver itself. Although many cancers are declining in the United States, new cases of primary liver cancer are increasing.
Cancers that commonly spread to the liver include colon, lung and breast cancers. These cancers aren't called liver cancer. Instead, they are named after the organ in which the cancer began — such as metastatic colon cancer to describe cancer that begins in the colon and spreads to the liver. These metastatic cancers are treated based on where the cancer began, rather than being treated as primary liver cancers.
Symptoms of Liver Cancer
Most people don't have signs and symptoms in the early stages of liver cancer, which means the disease may not be detected until it's quite advanced. When symptoms do appear, they may include some or all of the following:
Causes of Liver Cancer
Your liver is a football-sized organ that sits in the upper right portion of your abdomen, beneath your diaphragm and above your stomach. Your liver processes most of the nutrients absorbed from your small intestine and determines how much sugar (glucose), protein and fat enter your bloodstream. It also manufactures blood-clotting substances and certain proteins. Your liver performs a vital detoxifying function by removing drugs, alcohol and other harmful substances from your bloodstream.
Liver cancer occurs when liver cells begin to grow abnormally. It's not completely understood why this happens, but researchers believe that cancer starts with damage to DNA — the material that contains the instructions for every chemical process in your body, including the rate of cellular growth. DNA damage causes changes in these instructions. One result is that cells may begin to grow out of control and eventually form a tumor — a mass of malignant cells.
Primary liver cancer
Primary liver cancer is divided into several types based on the type of cells that become cancerous. Types include:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) : This is the most common form of primary liver cancer in both children and adults. It starts in the hepatocytes, the main type of liver cell.
Cholangiocarcinoma : This type of cancer begins in the small tube-like bile ducts within the liver. This type of cancer is sometimes called bile duct cancer.
Hepatoblastoma : This rare type of liver cancer affects children younger than 4 years of age. Most children with hepatoblastoma can be successfully treated.
Angiosarcoma or hemangiosarcoma : These rare cancers begin in the blood vessels of the liver and grow very quickly
In the United States, most cancer found in the liver has spread there from another part of the body. Rather than being referred to as liver cancer, this type of cancer is usually named after the organ where it originated and is described as "metastatic." For instance, cancer that has spread to the liver from the colon is referred to as metastatic colon cancer.
Metastatic cancers form when malignant cells detach from the primary cancer and travel through the body in the circulatory or lymphatic system. Cancers that begin in certain organs near the liver, such as the pancreas, can spread directly to the liver. Most metastatic cancers reach the liver through the bloodstream. Why the liver is so commonly affected by metastatic cancer isn't clear. One reason may be the liver's rich blood supply.
Risk factors of Liver Cancer
Primary liver cancer can affect people of all ages and races, but certain factors may increase your risk, including:
Tests and diagnosis of Liver Cancer
Screening for liver cancer hasn't been definitively proved to reduce the risk of dying of liver cancer. For this reason, many medical groups don't recommend liver cancer screening. However, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases recommends liver cancer screening for those thought to have a high risk, including people who have:
If you experience any of the symptoms of liver cancer, your doctor will ask you about your medical history and perform a physical exam. Tests and procedures used to diagnose liver cancer include:
Staging tests help determine the size and location of cancer and whether it has spread. Liver cancer may be staged in different ways. One method uses the Roman numerals I through IV, with higher numbers indicating cancers that are more advanced. A stage I tumor is small and confined to one lobe of the liver. By stage IV, several tumors may exist in different lobes, or malignant cells may have spread to other parts of the body.
Doctors may also use the following stages to describe primary liver cancer in adults:
Doctors use the following stages to describe childhood liver cancer:
At this stage, the cancer can be removed with surgery.
Most stage II liver cancers can be removed with an operation, but microscopic amounts of cancer remain in the liver after surgery.
At this stage, some of the cancer may be surgically removed, but some will remain in the lymph nodes or abdomen.
This stage of cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
This means the cancer has returned after it has been treated. It may recur in the liver or in another part of the body.
Treatments of Liver Cancer
Treatments for primary liver cancer depend on the extent (stage) of the disease as well as your age, overall health, feelings and personal preferences. Discuss all of your options carefully with your treatment team.
The goal of any treatment is to eliminate the cancer completely. When that isn't possible, the focus may be on preventing the tumor from growing or spreading. In some cases palliative care only is appropriate. Palliative care refers to treatment aimed not at removing or slowing the disease but at helping relieve symptoms and making you as comfortable as possible.
Treatments for primary liver cancer in adults
Treatments for adults with primary liver cancer include:
The best treatment for localized resectable cancer is usually an operation known as surgical resection. In some cases, the area of the liver where the cancer is found can be completely removed. You aren't a candidate for surgical removal of liver tumors if you have cirrhosis or only a small amount of healthy liver tissue. Even when resections are successful, there is a chance the cancer can recur elsewhere in the liver or in other areas within a few years.
In this procedure, pure alcohol is injected directly into tumors, either through the skin or during an operation. Alcohol dries out the cells of the tumor and eventually the cells die. Each treatment consists of one injection, although you may need a series of injections for the best results. Alcohol injection has been shown to improve survival in people with small hepatocellular tumors. It may also be used to help reduce symptoms in cases of metastatic liver cancer. The most common side effect is leaking of alcohol onto the liver or into the abdominal cavity.
In this procedure, electric current in the radiofrequency range is used to destroy malignant cells. Using an ultrasound or CT scan as a guide, your surgeon inserts several thin needles into small incisions in your abdomen. When the needles reach the tumor, they're heated with an electric current, destroying the malignant cells. Radiofrequency ablation is an option for people with small, unresectable hepatocellular tumors and for some types of metastatic liver cancers. Although the procedure has a somewhat higher risk of serious complications than alcohol injection does, it appears to provide better outcomes.
Chemoembolization is a type of chemotherapy treatment that supplies strong anti-cancer drugs directly to the liver. Chemoembolization isn't curative, but it can shrink tumors in a certain percentage of people, which may provide symptom relief and improve survival. During the procedure, the hepatic artery — the artery from which liver cancers derive their blood supply — is blocked, and chemotherapy drugs are injected between the blockage and the liver. The idea is that by targeting the tumor directly, doctors can use potent doses of drugs without creating as many side effects as occur with systemic chemotherapy. But the fact is that chemoembolization causes many of the same side effects as other forms of chemotherapy, including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Chemoembolization is less likely to cause some side effects such as lowered blood cell counts or hair loss.
Cryoablation (cryosurgery or cryotherapy)
This treatment uses extreme cold to destroy cancer cells. Cryoablation may be an option for people with inoperable primary and metastatic liver cancers. It may also be used in addition to surgery, chemotherapy or other standard treatments. During the procedure, your doctor places an instrument (cryoprobe) containing liquid nitrogen directly onto liver tumors. Ultrasound images are used to guide the cryoprobe and monitor the freezing of the cells. Side effects include damage to the bile ducts and major blood vessels, leading to bleeding or infection.
This treatment uses high-powered energy beams to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside your body or from radiation-containing materials inserted into your liver. Radiation may be used on its own to treat localized unresectable cancer. Or you may have radiation therapy following surgical removal of a tumor to help destroy any remaining malignant cells. Radiation side effects may include fatigue, nausea and vomiting.
This treatment uses powerful drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be systemic — meaning it travels throughout your body in your bloodstream — or regional. Systemic chemotherapy is generally not effective in treating liver cancer, but may be a treatment option in certain cases.
In this surgical procedure, a diseased liver is removed and replaced with a healthy, donated organ. Liver transplantation may be an option for some people with small, early-stage liver tumors and for certain people with bile duct tumors. In other cases, especially when tumors are larger or blood vessels are involved, a transplant may not improve long-term outlook because the cancer may recur outside the new liver.
Treatments for primary liver cancer in children
Liver cancer in young people is rare. As a result, most children with the disease are treated at centers that specialize in childhood cancers. In general, the treatments available for children are the same as for adults, and the best approach depends on the stage and type of cancer as well as the child's age and overall health.
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HIFU Treatment for Liver Cancer
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