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Nephrectomy - Kidney Removal Surgery :
Nephrology (Kidney)
Nephrectomy - Kidney Removal Surgery India offers information on Nephrectomy - Kidney Removal Surgery in India, Nephrectomy - Kidney Removal Surgery cost India, Nephrectomy - Kidney Removal Surgery hospital in India, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad & Bangalore, Nephrectomy - Kidney Removal Surgeon in India.

A nephrectomy is a surgery in which a kidney or part of a kidney is removed.


Parts of the Body Involved

Kidneys

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How is the procedure performed?

There are three basic types of kidney removal, including:
Reasons for Procedure

Kidney removal may be done because of:
Risk Factors for Complications During the Procedure

Risk factors from anesthesia include: Risk factors from the surgery include:
Prior to Procedure

If a transfusion is needed either before or after surgery, its important that your blood samples are typed and cross-matched.

A catheter is inserted into the bladder.

In the days leading up to your procedure:
Anesthesia

General anesthesia will be given. You will be asleep and will not feel pain during the procedure.


Description of the Procedure

Once the anesthesia takes effect, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or side of the abdomen. A rib may need to be removed to access the kidney. The ureter (which carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) and blood vessels are cut. The kidney (or part of the kidney) is removed. The incision is then closed.


Kidneys, Ureters, and Renal Blood Vessels


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Kidneys, Ureters, and Renal Blood Vessels


Laparoscopic surgery may also be used for nephrectomy. Generally, this approach is reserved for tumors less than 10 cm in size. The surgeon inflates the abdominal cavity with gas(CO2) and makes several key-hole size incisions. Similar to the open approach, the ureter and blood vessels are cut. The kidney (or part of the kidney) is removed. A small incision is made to retrieve the kidney.


What is laparoscopic nephrectomy?


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Fig 1 : Position of small incision (.5 to 1 inch and 2.5 to 3 inch) for loproscopic donorn nephrectomy surgery. No muscles are cut during any of this incision

Fig 2 : Muscle cutting incision (6 to 10 inch used in traditional open donor nephrectomy surgery


Laparoscopy also known as "keyhole surgery" is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which a special camera called a laparoscope is used to produce an inside view of the abdominal cavity. Surgeons use the laparoscope, which transmits a real-life picture of the internal organs to a video monitor, to guide them through surgical procedures. The laparoscope magnifies these images many times their actual size, providing surgeons with a superior view of the abdomen.

Laparoscopic nephrectomy is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a laparoscope to remove a kidney for donation. Laparoscopic kidney removal is considered minimally invasive because it only requires three or four small non-muscle-cutting incisions rather than one large muscle-cutting incision in the abdomen. (See below).


Laparoscopic Nephrectomy Open Nephrectomy
Incision Three half-inch incisions in the abdomen; one 2.5 to 3 inch incision low in the abdomen, in the bikini area. No muscle is cut during any of these incisions. An 6 to 10 inch muscle cutting incision on the side of the abdomen; frequently requires removal of one rib
Length of hospital stay 1 to 2 days 3 to 5 days
Recovery Less scarring after surgery
Less discomfort and decreased need for pain medication
Increased scarring after surgery Greater need for pain medication
Return to normal activity 2 to 4 weeks 8 to 12 weeks


During the procedure, carbon dioxide is passed through one of the incisions into the abdominal cavity to lift the abdominal wall away from the organs below, creating more operating space to perform the surgery. The pencil-thin laparoscope and surgical instruments are then inserted through the other incisions.

At the end of the procedure, the kidney is removed through a 7 cm, non-muscle-cutting incision in the bikini area.


After Procedure

You are generally encouraged to move around and be cautiously active as symptoms allow. Avoid strenuous exercise or activities for approximately six weeks.

After the procedure, be sure to follow your doctor's instructions .


How Long Will It Take?

The surgery will take between 3-4 hours.


Will It Hurt?

Recovery from nephrectomy is usually painful, because of the location of the incision. The laparoscopic approach is significantly less painful.


Possible Complications

Risk factors from anesthesia include: Risk factors from the surgery include:
Average Hospital Stay

Typical hospital stay following nephrectomy is 2-7 days. The exact length depends on the type of surgery performed.


Postoperative Care

Intravenous fluids and pain medication are given following the surgery. Blood pressure, electrolytes, and fluid balance should all be carefully monitored. A urinary catheter is often required for a short time following surgery.


Outcome

Prognosis following nephrectomy is usually good, particularly if only one kidney or part of a kidney has been removed. If both kidneys are removed, hemodialysis or kidney transplantation is necessary.


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